State Exam (Mechatronics Engineering BSc)

The candidate is permitted to take the state exam if his/her thesis and summarized description have been evaluated with a pass grade (2) by the reviewers and the department.

The state exam consists of two parts.


Part 1: Oral and written exams on two topics


Topic 1: The topics of the following courses: CAD and CAE II (called Mechatronic Applications of CAxx Systems since the academic year of 2016/2017), Programmable Logic Controllers, Electrical Machines and Drives.

Topic 2: The topics of the following courses: Measurements and Automatics II, Building Automation. (on Building Mechatronics Specialization)

Part 1 of the state exam is considered to be an entrance exam for the Mechatronical Engineering MSc program at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen.

sample tasks 

Each candidate is expected to take a calculator into the written part of the state exam.

The requirements and the topics of the written and oral state exam are announced no later then the last week of the study period.

B1: Topics on CAD and CAE Techniques

  1. Introducing the system of CAxx technologies, their main units and their features.
  2. Applying CAD systems (Areas of the application of CAD systems, classification of CAD systems, significant differences among the classes, grouping and availability of the programs help design in electrical engineering) 
  3. The process of mechanical design. Introduction the stages of the process, the features of the individual stages and relation formation among the stages. Introduce the process of innovational production development. 
  4. Review the systems of CIM (development of a CIM system with the integration of CAxx techniques, the architecture of an integrated system, Computer Integrated Manufacturing in 3 ways) 
  5. Technology of bore mounted printed wiring boards: process of design and manufacture.
  6. Technology of surface mounted printed wiring boards: process of design and manufacture.
  7. Bore and surface mounted component enclosures: active and passive components.
  8. Functions of environment used for software development of inset systems: word processing, error seeking, translation environment of different programming languages, fitting outer libraries. Software developing processes of inset systems.


B1: Topics on Programmable Logic Controllers

  1. PLC history, trends, types of its development and their possible applications,
  2. Methods of programming, linear and modular programming, instruction list and scale diagram programming language. The aspects of PLC selection, hardware selection, problems of system speed, environmental requirements, maintenance requirements. The structure of PLCs, their architecture, units of CPU.
  3. Functional units of PLCs, memory units, relations of CPU memory, power pack.
  4. Digital, analogue and special output units.
  5. Digital, analogue and special input units.
  6. PLC networks, advantages of communication networks, network elements,
  7. Communication of MODBUS.
  8. Communication of PROFIBUS.
  9. Operation safety of PLC: elements, reliability, redundancy, factors of failure, useful life, tests.


B1: Topics on Electrical Machines and Drives 

  1. Review the classification of transformers (power, kinetic equation, energy, spinning and distance motions; engine load curves, work point, stability).
  2. Review a direct-current machine: its construction, working principle, mechanic and electric commutator, substitute circuit diagram.
  3. Review the most significant information about the maintenance of direct-current machines: series, parallel, exterior excitation; start, speed modification, braking.
  4. Introduce the working principles of transformers: indicated voltage, substitute electric circuit diagram, neutral mode, short block and load conditions. 3-phase transformers, star-delta shifting, parallel mode of a transformer, special transformers.
  5. Basics of theory and use of a rotary panel, how a rotary magnetic field can be produced with 3-phase winding. Describe the construction and working principle of a synchronous machine.
  6. Introduce a 3-phase synchronous machine: its construction and working principle, substitute electric circuit diagram.
  7. Review the power states of a 3-phase asynchronous machine: start, speed changing.
  8. Review the working principles and types of a step motor.
  9. Special electric machines, like: a reluctance motor, a hysteresis motor, a linear motor.
  10. Review the types of power pack connections and working principles of DC/DC converters.
  11. Review the pulse-width modulation (PWM) and the substance of H bridge.
  12. Introduce the construction, working principles and main characters in use of a frequency changer.


B2: Topics on Measurements and Automatics

  1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS. Introduce the theoretic bases and construction features of a measuring instrument. Analyze and group sensors and measuring transformers. Introduce the systems of measurements. What kind of measurement methods, errors in measurements do you know?  
  2. INDUCTIVE SENSORS. Physical bases of inductive perception, general equations, variables. Different types of inductive sensors (retract yoke sensor and differential coil sensor, FLDT LVDT contactless inductive sensors), their working methods and signal processing.
  3. SENSORS ON THE BASES OF LIGHT ELECTRIC AFFECT. Review the theoretical background of their operation. Construction, operation modes and application areas of a photo diode and a photocell transistor. Review the working principle, construction and application areas of optical coupling units. Introduce the working principle of a scanner. Compare CIS, 3CCD 3LCD, picture integral units. Review the working principle, construction and application areas of a liquid crystal display.  
  4. MEASURMENT TOOLS FOR MEASURING ELASTIC DISTORTION.  Review the theoretical background and structures of piezoelectric, piezoresistance, capacitive microelectronic pressure sensors, PN-crossover, MOSFET sensors. Introduce the construction working principle of a tubular diaphragm, tubular spiral, an extension meter. Draw a foil built NMB stamper, all types of extension sensor wires and the 1, 2 and 4-sensor axle engagements made of extension sensor wires. 
  5. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS Review the different types of instruments (mechanic and electrical, ignition, resistance change, thermo electric power, rigidity, colour, radiance) their working principles, constructions, application area. Introduce the construction, operation and features of thermals, metal thermometers, semiconductor thermometers, thermoelectric senders. Draw the engagement of thermoelectric sender and describe it. PROXIMITY SWITCH. Review the physical construction, working principles, features and application areas of capacitive, ultrasound, REED, magneto inductive, HALL sensors. 
  6. THE THEORETICAL BASES OF AUTOMATION. Basic concepts, signals and their classification.  Comparison of automation and control. Subdivision of control and setting. The signals and features of control circles. The detectors of control circles (sensor-, base signal constituting, distinction/odds constituting, signal forming, amplifier-, interfering-). Subdivision of automatic controls.
  7. CONTROL TECHNIQUES. Basic operations and common identities of Boolean algebra (AND, OR, NO, NOR, INHIBITION, XOR, NAND, EQUIVALENCE, IMPLICATION). De Morgan themes of conversion. Simplification of functions in algebraic and graphic way. 
  8. LINEAR CONTROL TECHNIQUES. Review the methods of investigation in time range and the methods of transfer functions in frequency. Investigation of proportional (0 TYPE) control. Investigation on integrated control (type 1). Definition and measurement of round amplification. Definition and measurement of rehearsal time.
  9. STEADY-STATE OPERATING STATUS OF LINEAR CONTROL. Linear units (P,I,D) and their transmission coefficient. Engagements of linear units (linear, parallel, feedback). Negative feedback of control. Negative feedback of P piece. Negative feedback of I piece through P piece.  
  10. TRANSITION STATE OF LINEAR CONTROL. Typical investigation of functions. Linear differential equation. Turning a transfer function into a transition function. Differential equation, transition and transfer functions of proportionals and integrals. Differential equation and transition and transfer functions of differentials and time outs.
  11. INVESTIGATION OF CONTROL CIRCLES IN TRANSITION STATE. Transfer functions of a control circle. Stability of Routh-Hurwitz control circles with, Bode, Nyquist criteria, their quality features. Progressive controls (P,I,D,PI,PD,PID).


B2:  Topics on Building Automation

  1. Basic concepts of building automation: control, rating, permanent, positional adjustment. Main parts of adjusting elements in building engineering: sensors, actuators, controllers, examples in application for the topics of heating, cooling, air engineering. The purpose of rating in building engineering systems, examples in application for: heating, cooling, air engineering.
  2. Setting building supervisory systems: levels of sensors and actuators, level of field rating (at premises-level), level of field networks, transfer units, LAN/WAN networks, supervisor software level
  3. Sensors of building automation: temperature, humidity, motion, opening doors and windows, CO2, pressure, illumination. Transmitting units: Analogue (0-10V, 4-20mA) and digital communication. Interveners in building automation: one-way two-running valves, two-way three-running valves (features, flow curves, selection criteria), ball valves, Application: zone valves. Valve actuators applied for building automation: for regulating and shut-off valves, zone valve actuators, shutter actuators, frequency changer
  4. Introduction of field (at place level) regulators: regulators that can be freely parameterized and freely programmable. Basic transferring elements of building supervisory networks: field networks: topology, network elements. Wired: MODBUS, LON(Talk), Wireless: ZigBee, WiFi. Applied examples, surface heating and fan-coil (climate convector) for regulation in heating and cooling options.
  5. Types of heat exchangers, transfer functions of heat exchangers. Power regulation on heat exchangers. Basic building engineering hydraulic circles, elements of basic heating circles, regulation of convections with permanent and variable volume flow rate.
  6. Basics of refrigeration technique: basics of refrigeration cycle, regulation of cooling power. basic operation of a heat pump, heating and cooling modes, power regulation.
  7. Electronic fire alarm systems, construction of an automatic indication and alarm system, construction of reset circuit and „Intelligent” systems, fire alarm sensors and indicators.
  8. Identification systems: knowledge, optical, electronic and biometric identification systems. Construction of an entry system and its functions.
  9. Electric power distribution inside a building. Uninterruptible power sources, the principle of redundancy.
  10. Safety and object protection. Risk-levels. Value based risk analysis. Levels of safety engineering. Safety camera systems: their functions, construction, types of applied cameras. Parts of a monitoring system. Its design and installation.


Part 2: Defending thesis (presentation on thesis, followed by answers to questions and remarks)

In case work on thesis is undertaken in one of the laboratories of the department, according to the chairman’s decision the examination board can gain insight into the results of the thesis on the premises. The candidate is expected to prepare for this in the days prior to the state exam and must have all the tools and instruments necessary for the presentation. If the end product of thesis is moveable, then it can be taken into the department (for e.g. a mobile robot, an electric car etc.), and can be presented at the thesis defense. A classroom will be allocated for the presentation. If the end product cannot be presented (as it does not exist or cannot be taken into the department), then the presentation must provide such films, photos which give evidence for the work to have been done by the candidate himself/herself. 

Main parts of the presentation:

  1. Title of the thesis, author’s name (1 slide)
  2. Content of the presentation (1 slide)
  3. Addressing the problem, presenting the task to be solved (2-3 slides)
  4. An approach to problem-solving, derivations and guidelines for physics, mechanics, electrotechnics, mechatronics, a factual summary of the applied principles, knowledge (maximum 2 slides)
  5. Introducing the solution (main steps and results of the work (1-3 slides))
  6. Results achieved (1-2 slides)
  7. Conclusion, proposing solutions, further improvements (1-2 slides)
  8. Appreciation (to the firm, consultant, supervisor etc.)  (1 slide)


In the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th part of the presentation graphs, consequences, equations must be applied to introduce the task. Textual description should be avoided. A movie can also be applied in the 5th part if it makes sense.

After introducing the presentation, the examiners can ask the candidate to respond to the written review and some questions of the reviewer. Also, other theoretical and practical questions will be asked about the thesis topic. 

The candidate fails the state exam if 

  • he/she does not reach at least 40% in the written exam;
  • he/she fails in the oral exam on any of the subject groups (in such cases he/she must retake this part (the failed subject group) of the state exam no later than the next exam period);
  • he/she fails to defend thesis (in such cases thesis must be modified according to the review, the defense must be repeated no later than the next exam period).

Updated: 2018.03.27.

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